Manganese has numerous low and high tech applications. Manganese metal is a key component of aluminum alloys. Manganese oxide is used in dry cell batteries. Manganese is used in steel production to remove sulfur and oxygen. Manganese is the colorant in natural amethyst stones and is used in glass and ceramics to also create the amethyst color. It is used like the element Cerium to "decolorize" glass by offsetting the green from impurities of ferric ions. Permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in medicine. It is added as a nutritional supplement for both human and animal consumption. Recently, the oxide in the form of various perovskite structures have demonstrated applications in oxygen generation and solid oxide fuel cells.
Manganese is a Block D, Group 7, Period 4 element. The electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d5 4s2. In its elemental form manganese's CAS number is 7439-96-5. The manganese atom has a radius of 136.7.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm.
Manganese was first discovered by Johann Gahn in 1774.
French: manganese, German: Mangan, Italian: manganese, Portuguese: Manganesio, Spanish: manganeso, Swedish: Mangan
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