© 2007 James L. Rota, Rotaperiod.com
About the Rota Period
Rota Period Explained (pdf)
Rota Period Abstract Published in JSE (pdf)
Atomic Radius, Electronegativity, Electropositivity, First Ionization Energy, Mass + Z, Metallic Properties and Oxidation State Trends
*** Iron (Fe) is an example of how multi valence elements are displayed.
About This Project
Created: Spring 2006
Website Launched: June 2007
There are several unique structural things about the Rota Period that make it easy to understand and use:
- It uses 12 columns (groups).
- The 5+, 6+, 7+, and 8+ elements are not classified into groups V, VI, VII and VIII (or IUPAC 5, 6, 7, 8). This gives these elements their own unique position in the periodic table.
- It uses the horizontal and vertical of the page to displace elements. This allows ALL elements to have a unique position (if/when necessary).
- It is based upon showing valences, not orbitals.
You can an explanation here.
The above items allow for the following benefits:
- There is no longer any need for subgroups a and b
- It incorporates the Lanthanide and Actinide Series (i.e. does not need separate tables)
- It is very easy to see valences and the relationships between elements. For example, it is very easy to see how Titanium and Zirconium are related to Carbon (they are all 4+'s). It is also very easy to see how the positive elements would combine with the negative elements (e.g. CO2).
- It clearly separates the "negative" elements from the "positive" elements.
Some Notes About The Rota Period:
- I came up with this model after noticing the strength of the 4+ elements (boiling and melting points).
- In most cases I have used the highest valence to display.
- Elements having more than one valence are shown using asterixes to indicate the other valences. Also see Multivalence1 and Multivalence2.
- It is flexible. You can create your own version using your valence data. This may prove useful in coming up with new theories about the elements.
- As more valence data comes in, the positions of some elements may change.